Programmable Architecture

-Towards Human Interactive, Cybernetic Architecture-

Kensuke Hotta (B.Eng, M.Eng, Msc)

PhD (For the degree of Philosophy of Doctorate in Architectural Design)

Architectural Association School of Architecture and The Open University

The Date of Submission :12 December 2013 (for Examination)

プログラマブルアーキテクチャ

ーヒューマンインタラクティブ、サイバネティックアーキテクチャーに向けて

堀田憲祐(工学学士、工学修士、理学修士)

博士号(哲学博士、建築デザイン学)

英国建築協会建築学校 & オープンユニバーシティ

提出日:2013年12月12日


PA_intro


1 .Introduction

1-1. Introduction

PA_Chap1

1-1-1. Definition of Original Words (Programmable / Robotic / Responsive Architecture)
1-2. Research Motivation
1-3. Research Field's Background
1-3-1. From the Field of Architecture
1-3-2. From the Control Engineering Field
1-4. Aim and Objectives
1-5. Thesis Overview

PA_Chap2-1


2 . State of the Art, Background

2-1 . Introduction

2-2. From Architecture

2-2-1. Cedric Price and the Japanese Metabolism Movement

2-2-2. Criticism of Teleological Planning with A.Isozaki and C. Alexander’s idea

2-2-3. A Shortcoming of Parametricism

2-2-4. Three Realized Cybernetic Architecture Projects

2-2-5. Nicholas Negroponte’s Idea

PA_Chap2-2

2-3. From Engineering
2-3-1. Robotics
2-3-1-1.Subsumption Architecture (in Robotics)
2-3-1-2. Swarm Robotics
2-3-1-3. Self-Reconfigurable Modular Robots
2-3-1-4. Cooperative/Social Robot
2-3-1-5. Replicative/Evolutionary Robots
2-3-2. Cybernetics
2-3-3. Control System and Control Theory
2-3-3-1. Feedback Control
2-3-3-2. Controller (P, PI, PID controller)
2-3-3-3. Sensing / Measurement and Noise
2-3-3-4. Actuation
2-3-3-5. Stability and Catastrophic Collapse
2-3-4. Deterministic vs Stochastic in prediction and forecasting
2-3-5. Optimization
2-3-5-1. Objective functions (purpose)
2-3-5-2. GA vs others
2-3-5-3. Simulated Annealing
2-3-5-4. Dantzig’s Simplex method
2-3-5-5. Stochastic Diffusion Search/Ant Algorithms
2-3-6. Evolutionary Computing
2-4. From Biology and Biomimetics (Cooperative species)
2-4-1. The Sociable Weaver (Social Birds)
2-4-2. The Termites (Insects' Architecture)
2-4-3. The Dictyostelium (Social Amoeba)
2-5. From Psychology
2-5-1 . Valentino Braitenberg and His Suggest for Temporal Design Method
2-6. From Art
2-6-1. Strand beast by Theo Jansen
2-6-2. Petit Mal by Simon Penny
2-7. Conclusion and Problem Statement

PA_Chap3

3 . Methodology3-1 . Introduction
3-2 . Philosophy
3-2-1. The Philosophy of Programmable Architecture
3-2-2 . Ubiquitous Architecture
3-2-3 . Programmable Matter for Architecture
3-3. Engineering Tools
3-3-1 . Required Hardware
3-3-1-1 Actuator Properties (Material, Power, Time response, Size, Weight, Max speed)
3-3-2 . Required Software
3-3-2-1. Rhinoceros
3-3-2-2. Grasshopper
3-3-2-3. Galapagos
3-3-2-4. Kangaroo Physics
3-3-2-5. Processing
3-3-2-6. Arduino
3-3-2-7. Traer physics
3-3-3 . Brief Introduction of Genetic Algorithm
3-3-3-1. History of Genetic Algorithm
3-3-3-2. General Strong and Weak Points of Genetic Algorithm
3-3-3-3. The Basic GA Procedure
3-3-3-3-1. Generate Initial Group
3-3-3-3-2. Evaluation
3-3-3-3-3. Selection
3-3-3-3-4. Crossover
3-3-3-3-5. Mutation
3-3-3-3-6. Re-generation and Repetition
3-4 .Conclusion:

PA_Chap4

4 . Architectural Design Proposal
4-1. Introduction
4-2. Space Reconfiguration
4-3. Electrical Controlled - Cybernetic Architecture
4-4. Flexible Structure: Kinetic Tensegrity Component (Drawing)
4-5. Ever Changing Plan (Drawing)
4-6. The Three Different Scales: Local- Regional -Global
4-7. The Compromise System Between Global-Local as Democracy-Socialism
4-8. The Relation Between Physical Model and Constructive Model
4-9. Conclusion

PA_Chap5

5 . Data and Analytical Methods
5-1 . Evaluating Performance in ‘Intelligent Systems’
5-2 . Details of Methodology in Previous Experiments
5-3 . Initial Physical Experiments
5-3-1. A Building Envelop Experiment
5-3-2. Kinetic Robot Experiments
5-4 . What is Going to Be Examined
5-5 . Examine, Evaluate and Compare a Fixed and Kinetic Roof
5-6 . What is The Contribution

PA_Chap6
6 . Experiment 1: Simple Real-Time GA with Grasshopper

6-1 . Introduction

6-2 . Aim

6-3 . Preparation and Mathematical Definitions of the Model

6-3-1. Static Tensegrity Structure

6-3-2. Spring System

6-3-3. Membranes on the Tensegrity Structure

6-3-4. The Sun

6-3-5. Evaluating/ Record

6-4 . The Unique Feature / Limitation of ‘Galapagos’

6-5 . Four Candidates

6-6. Graph Approximation and Visualization

6-7. The result of Comparison of 4 candidates

6-8. The Comparing the computing time for the kinetic candidates

6-9. The Comparison between the different number of resets within kinetic candidates
6-10. Discussion and Conclusion

PA_Chap7

7 . Experiment 2: Human Assisted GA with Processing

7-1 . Introduction

7-2 . Model Concept

7-3 . Before the Experiment, Preparation and Model Details

7-4 . Model Execution and Evaluation
7-5 . Argument and Conclusion