Programmable Architecture

-Towards Human Interactive, Cybernetic Architecture-

Kensuke Hotta (B.Eng, M.Eng, Msc),
Architectural Association School of Architecture

プログラマブル アーキテクチャ

ーヒューマンインタラクティブ、サイバネティックアーキテクチャーに向けてー

堀田憲祐(工学学士、工学修士、理学修士),
英国建築協会建築学校

1 .Introduction 1-1. Introduction
1-1-1. Definition of Original Words (Programmable / Robotic / Responsive Architecture)
1-2. Research Motivation
1-3. Research Field's Background
1-3-1. From the Field of Architecture
1-3-2. From the Control Engineering Field
1-4. Aim and Objectives
1-5. Thesis Overview

Chapter2 ;
Statement of Art

2-1 . Introduction
2-2. From Architecture
2-2-1. Cedric Price and the Japanese Metabolism Movement
2-2-2. Criticism of Teleological Planning with A.Isozaki and C. Alexander’s idea
2-2-3. A Shortcoming of Parametricism
2-2-4. Three Realized Cybernetic Architecture Projects
2-2-5. Nicholas Negroponte’s Idea

Chapter2 ;
Statement of Art

2-3. From Engineering
2-3-1. Robotics
2-3-1-1.Subsumption Architecture (in Robotics)
2-3-1-2. Swarm Robotics
2-3-1-3. Self-Reconfigurable Modular Robots
2-3-1-4. Cooperative/Social Robot
2-3-1-5. Replicative/Evolutionary Robots

Chapter2 ;
Statement of Art

2-3-2. Cybernetics
2-3-3. Control System and Control Theory
2-3-3-1. Feedback Control
2-3-3-2. Controller (P, PI, PID controller)
2-3-3-3. Sensing / Measurement and Noise
2-3-3-4. Actuation
2-3-3-5. Stability and Catastrophic Collapse
2-3-4. Deterministic vs Stochastic in prediction and forecasting
2-3-6. Evolutionary Computing
2-3-5. Optimization
2-3-5-1. Objective functions (purpose)
2-3-5-2. GA vs others
2-3-5-3. Simulated Annealing
2-3-5-4. Dantzig’s Simplex method
2-3-5-5. Stochastic Diffusion Search/Ant Algorithms

Chapter2 ;
Statement of Art

2-4; Art From Biology and Biomimetics

2-4. From Biology and Biomimetics (Cooperative species)
2-4-1. The Sociable Weaver (Social Birds)
2-4-2. The Termites (Insects' Architecture)
2-4-3. The Dictyostelium (Social Amoeba)
2-5. From Psychology
2-5-1 . Valentino Braitenberg and His Suggest for Temporal Design Method
2-6. From Art
2-6-1. Strand beast by Theo Jansen
2-6-2. Petit Mal by Simon Penny
2-7. Conclusion and Problem Statement

3-1 . Introduction
3-2 . Philosophy
3-2-1. The Philosophy of Programmable Architecture
3-2-2 . Ubiquitous Architecture
3-2-3 . Programmable Matter for Architecture
3-3. Engineering Tools
3-3-1 . Required Hardware
3-3-1-1 Actuator Properties (Material, Power, Time response, Size, Weight, Max speed)
3-3-2 . Required Software
3-3-2-1. Rhinoceros
3-3-2-2. Grasshopper
3-3-2-3. Galapagos
3-3-2-4. Kangaroo Physics
3-3-2-5. Processing
3-3-2-6. Arduino
3-3-2-7. Traer physics
3-3-3 . Brief Introduction of Genetic Algorithm
3-3-3-1. History of Genetic Algorithm
3-3-3-2. General Strong and Weak Points of Genetic Algorithm
3-3-3-3. The Basic GA Procedure
3-3-3-3-1. Generate Initial Group
3-3-3-3-2. Evaluation
3-3-3-3-3. Selection
3-3-3-3-4. Crossover
3-3-3-3-5. Mutation
3-3-3-3-6. Re-generation and Repetition
3-4 .Conclusion:

4-1. Introduction
4-2. Space Reconfiguration
4-3. Electrical Controlled - Cybernetic Architecture
4-4. Flexible Structure: Kinetic Tensegrity Component (Drawing)
4-5. Ever Changing Plan (Drawing)
4-6. The Three Different Scales: Local- Regional -Global
4-7. The Compromise System Between Global-Local as Democracy-Socialism
4-8. The Relation Between Physical Model and Constructive Model
4-9. Conclusion

5-1 . Evaluating Performance in ‘Intelligent Systems’
5-2 . Details of Methodology in Previous Experiments
5-3 . Initial Physical Experiments
5-3-1. A Building Envelop Experiment
5-3-2. Kinetic Robot Experiments
5-4 . What is Going to Be Examined
5-5 . Examine, Evaluate and Compare a Fixed and Kinetic Roof
5-6 . What is The Contribution

6-1 . Introduction6-2 . Aim6-3 . Preparation and Mathematical Definitions of the Model6-3-1. Static Tensegrity Structure6-3-2. Spring System6-3-3. Membranes on the Tensegrity Structure6-3-4. The Sun6-3-5. Evaluating/ Record6-4 . The Unique Feature / Limitation of ‘Galapagos’6-5 . Four Candidates6-6. Graph Approximation and Visualization6-7. The result of Comparison of 4 candidates6-8. The Comparing the computing time for the kinetic candidates6-9. The Comparison between the different number of resets within kinetic candidates
6-10. Discussion and Conclusion


7-1 . Introduction7-2 . Model Concept7-3 . Before the Experiment, Preparation and Model Details7-4 . Model Execution and Evaluation
7-5 . Argument and Conclusion

8-1. Answer to Research Questions
8-2. Future Work, Scaling Up Towards Real Buildings
8-3. Future Work, Towards Physical Experiment
8-4. Future Work, Addressing Various Environmental Stimuli and Other Concerns
8-5. Future Structures

Chapter 10
Appendix