Programmable Architecture

-Towards Human Interactive, Cybernetic Architecture-

Kensuke Hotta (B.Eng, M.Eng, Msc)
Architectural Association School of Architecture, 2013



2-3. From Engineering


2-3-1. Robotics


2-3-1-1. Subsumption Architecture (in Robotics)

Subsumption Architecture (SA) is the reactive idea used in artificial intelligence (AI) developed to determine robot behaviour. This word and field was invented by R. Brooks in 1986 (Brooks,R. 1986). This philosophy widely influences self-standing robots and real-time artificial intelligence. SA consists of hierarchical modules, with each module containing a simple behaviour. The idea is to divide complex intelligence into simple modules as layer. Each layer is designed and implemented for a specific objective. The higher layer is the more abstract. This methodology is different from traditional techniques of artificial intelligence; Subsumption Architecture takes a bottom up approach. R. Brooks made the insect type robot called ‘GENGHIS’ in 1991 (Brooks, R. 1991), based on this idea: Subsumption Architecture. As a development of this robot, the automated cleaner: ‘ROOMBA’ ( was realized practically in the consumer world. Also in the military field, the automated bomb remover: ‘Packbot’ ( is working in disinterred areas such as battlefields and earthquake zones.


包摂アーキテクチャ(サブサンプションアーキテクチャ、以後SA)とは、広義の人工知能で使用される、ロボットの動作を決定するための概念である。この分野は、用語と共に1986年にロドニー ブルックス(ブルックス、R.1986年)によって発明され、確立した。この概念は、自立(自律)型ロボットやリアルタイム人工知能などにはばひろく影響を与えている。SAは複数の階層(レイヤー)モジュールで構成され、各モジュールは比較的単純な動作で構成されている。そのアイデアは、複雑にみえる知能を持ったものの振る舞いを階層状に簡単なモジュールに分割することである。各階層は特定の目的のために設計され、上位層はより抽象的である。この方法はボトムアップからのアプローチという面で、その当時の旧来の人工知能技術とは異なった。ロドニー ブルックスは1991年に(ブルックス. 1991年)、このSAのアイディアを基に"GENGHIS"と呼ばれる昆虫型のロボットを制作した。このロボットの発展型として、自走式掃除機の「ルンバ」(が市場で成功を納めた。また、軍事分野でも「パックボット」(とよばれる自動爆弾除去ロボットが、戦場や地震地域などの地域で活躍している。

Fig 2-3-1-1,1 : Layered control system
The author states “Control is layered with higher levels subsuming the roles of lower level layers when they wish to take control. The system can be partitioned at any level, and the layers below form a complete operational control system.” (P7, fig3, redraw by auther referring from A robust Layered control system for a mobile robot, by R. Brooks)
図.2-3-1-1,1 : 階層制御システム
著者であるロドニーブルックスは下記のように述べている。「制御は階層状になっており、ある階層がのぞめば、高い階層の役割を、低い階層が包摂することができる。そのシステムはどのレベルでも仕切ることが出来、下層は基本的な制御を完遂することが出来る』(P7, 図3、ロドニーブルックスによる、ロバストレイヤードコントロールシステムフォーモバイルロボット、筆者により再作図)
Fig 2-3-1-1,1 : Genghis, one of Rodney Brooks’
‘Artificial Creatures’ stands over a real insect. Rather than build robots that mimic people, Brooks feels they should mimic insects, and be, in his words, “fast, cheap, and out of control.”

(Photo by Louie Psihoyos, CORBIS,

図.2-3-1-1,1: ジンギス、ロドニーブルックスの仕事のひとつ
(写真 ルイシホヨス、コービス,
Fig 2-3-1-1, 2 : Roomba is one of a series of autonomous robotic vacuum cleaners sold by iRobot.
Roomba was introduced in 2002. As of Feb 2014, over 10 million units have been sold worldwide. Roomba features a set of basic sensors that help it perform tasks. For instance, the Roomba is able to change direction on encountering obstacles, detect dirty spots on the floor, and detect steep drops to keep it from falling down stairs. It uses two independently operating wheels that allow 360 degree turns in-place. Additionally, it can adapt to perform other more creative tasks using an embedded computer in conjunction with the Roomba
Open Interface. (Pics from
Fig2-3-1-1, 3 : PackBot (pics from


図2-3-1-1,3: パックボット(写真引用

2-3-1-2. Swarm Robotics

Swarm robotics is a relatively recent methodology for a multiple robot system. Each individual robot consists of a simple unit when compared to a traditional intelligent machine. The collective behaviour emerges from the robot to robot interaction and the robot to environment interaction. The idea was developed from biological studies of insects such as ants as well as other natural phenomena. The emergent behaviour is observed in social insects: relatively simple individual rules will produce a large set of complex swarm behaviours. From this the field of artificial swarm intelligence gets its name. It concerns not only computer science but philosophy as well.

2-3-1-2. 集合的ロボット工学


Fig2-3-1-2, 1 Symbrion is example of swarm robotics (pics from :
Symbrion (Symbiotic Evolutionary Robot Organisms) is a project funded by the European Commission to develop a framework in which a homogeneous swarm of miniature interdependent robots can co- assemble into a larger robotic organism to gain problem-solving momentum. Project duration: 2008- 2013. One of the key-aspects of Symbrion is inspired by the biological world: an artificial genome that allows it to store and evolve (sub) optimal configurations in order to achieve an increased speed of adaptation. The SYMBRION project does not start from zero, previous development and research from project I-SWARM and the open-source SWARMROBOT projects served as a starting point. A large part of the developments within Symbrion are open-source and open-hardware.
図2-3-1-2,1 集合的ロボットの例;SYMBRION (写真引用:

The research is divided into three main parts: the design of their physical bodies, the design of their control behaviours, and lastly the development of observational methods.

In terms of their physical parts, the major difference from stand-alone (distributed) robots is the number of robots, requiring a degree of scalability. This physical robot must also have a wireless transmission device using transmission media and protocols such as radio or infrared waves, Wi-Fi, or Bluetooth. Most of the time, they use it locally.

In terms of control behaviours, the system operates through constant feedback between members of the group. This communication is the key. The swarm behaviour involves constant change of individuals in cooperation with others, as well as the behaviour of the whole group.

Lastly, to observe this phenomenon systematically, video tracking though there are other ways: recently ultrasonic position tracking system was developed by Bristol robotics laboratory is an essential tool.





Generally the limiting constraints are the body’s miniaturization and its cost. A possible solution is simplifying the individual robots as the significant behaviour is located at the swarm level, instead of at the individual level. Though most efforts have focused on relatively small groups of machines, a swarm consisting of 1,024 individual units was demonstrated by Harvard in 2014, the largest to date. Further research about reliable prediction of swarm behaviour is expected, where only the features of the individual swarm members are assigned. One of the major potential applications of swarm robotics are distributed sensing tasks in micromachinery such as inside the human body. This is called nanorobotics or microbotics. Others future applications in the fields of mining and agricultural foraging are predicted.


2-3-1-3. Self-Reconfigurable Modular Robots

Self-reconfigurable modular robots are defined as autonomous kinematic machines that have variable morphology. "Self-reconfiguring" or "self-reconfigurable" means that the mechanism is capable of utilizing its own control system to change its overall structural shape. In the title "modular" refers to the ability to add or remove modules from the system, instead of an ordinal reference to a series of modules. To have an indefinite number of identical self-reconfigurable modules in a matrix structure creates the potential for a variety of functions. There are two typical methods of segment articulation: chain reconfiguration and lattice reconfiguration.

2-3-1-3. 自己再構成モジュールロボット

自己再構成モジュールロボットとは、可変的な形態を持ちえる自律的な運動機械と定義される。「自己再構成」または「自己再構成可能」とは、機構が自身の制御システムを利用して全体の構造形状を変更することができることを意味する。 また、タイトルにある 「modular」は、一連のモジュールを指す序列ではなく、この文脈ではシステムのモジュールを追加・削除できることを意味する。 そのような自己再構成可能な同一のモジュールを、数を決めずに行列状に構成することが可能だとすれば、さまざまな機能を実現できる可能性がある。例えば、セグメント連結の代表的な方法として、チェーン構成とラティス構成がある。

Fig 2-3-1-3, 3 Polybot by Yim et al. (PARC) ,
This is an example of Self reconfigurable robotics. "PolyBot is a modular, self-reconfigurable system that is being used to explore the hardware reality of a robot with a large number of interchangeable modules. PolyBot has demonstrated the promise of versatility, by implementing locomotion over a variety of objects. PolyBot is the first robot to demonstrate sequentially two topologically distinct locomotion modes by self- reconfiguration. PolyBot has raised issues regarding software scalability and hardware dependency and as the design evolves the issues of low cost and robustness will be resolved while exploring the potential of modular, self reconfigurable robots." ( refer from P1 Yim,M. et al. (2000) PolyBot: a Modular Reconfigurable Robot.)
図2-3-1-3,3 ポリボット by Yim et al.(パロアルト研究所)
これは自己再構成可能ロボットの一例である。曰く、『ポリボットは、モジュラーシステムであり、自己再構成可能システムである。多数の交換可能なモジュールでロボットのハードウェアを構成するアイデアの実現性を調査するために行われた。ポリボットは運動可能性を実装することによって、個体の物体的制約を超える機能的多様性を持つことをデモンストレーションした。ポリボットは自己再構成能力によって異なるトポロジーの状態を自律的に構成できることを証明したはじめてのロボットである。ポリボットは、ソフトウェアのスケーラビリティや、ハードウェアの依存性に関する問題を提起した。モジュラーロボット、自己再構成ロボットの開発の過程で、低コスト兼、頑健(ロバストネス)な設計についてのいくつかの課題が解決された。』(参照 Yim, al.(2000)ポリボット:モジュール自己再再構成可能ロボット。)

In terms of the physical robot, compared with morphologically fixed robots, these robots can change their own shape by rearranging their connection of their parts deliberately. The objectives of this function are to adapt to new circumstances, to perform another task, or to recover from damage, etc. As to their actual morphology they can, for instance, assume a worm-like shape to crawl forward, a spider-like shape to walk on a rough road, or ball-like shape for rolling on flat terrain. They can also assume fixed forms such as a wall or a building. They consist of mechanical parts, but also may have distributed electronics such as sensors, processors, memory, actuators and power supplies. The major difference from normal (stand-alone) robots is that each individual has multiple connectors allowing for a variety of ways to connect. The modules may have the ability to automatically connect and disconnect themselves to and from each other. Thanks to these parts, robots can form a variety of objects and perform many tasks that involve moving in and manipulating the environment.


2-3-1-4. Cooperative/Social Robot

Cooperative Robot vs Social Robot : A cooperative robot is an autonomous robot that interacts and communicates with other autonomous physical agents. A social robot is an autonomous robot that interacts and communicates with humans or other autonomous physical agents by following social behaviours and rules attached to its role. The definition of these two robots ‘Cooperative Robot’ and ‘Social Robot’ are almost same but vary slight on the point of the interaction target. Compared to the cooperative robot that only communicates with other robots, a social robot interacts with humans and embodied agents. In other words, the social robot is able to exhibit competitive behaviour within the framework of a game. This can included minimal or even no interaction as uncooperative behaviour can be considered a social response in certain situations. A robot that only interacts and communicates with other robots would not be considered to be a social robot, but cooperative.



The idea of ‘robot’ traditionally excludes characters on screen, ‘talking heads’ for instance, suggesting that both the cooperative and social robot must have a physical embodiment. This may, however, be being bit old school, as recently there are mechanisms which are on the borderline between the physical and digital domains. For instance, there is a mechanism that has a projected head and a mechanical body, but is considered a ’robot’. A final aspect of these mechanisms alongside ‘socializing’ and ‘embodiment’ is ‘autonomy’.

For example, a remote controlled robot cannot be considered to be cooperative/social even though it seems to interact with others. It is merely an extension of another human because it does not make decisions by itself. There is an argument as to whether semi-autonomous machines are cooperative/social robots.



The field of cooperative/social robotics was started in the 1940s-50s by William Grey Walter (1910-1977, American-born British neurophysiologist and robotician). In 1949, W. Grey Walter started building three wheeled, mobile robotic vehicles, calling them ‘turtles’ or ‘Machina Speculatrix’ after their speculative tendency to explore their environment. These vehicles consist of a light sensor, a touch sensor, a propulsion motor, a steering motor, and a two vacuum tube analogue computer. Even with this simple design, Grey demonstrated that his robots exhibited complex behaviours. His robots were unique because, unlike the robotic creations that preceded them, they didn't have a fixed behaviour. The robots had reflexes which, when combined with their environment, caused them to never exactly repeat the same actions twice. This emergent life-like behaviour was an early form of what we now call Artificial Life. It also examined how two machines interact recording it as a long exposure picture. That is the reason this research was about cooperative/ social robot. (fig2-3-1-4, 1,2,3)

協調的/社会的ロボット工学の分野は、1940年代から50年代にかけて、ウィリアム・グレイ・ウォルター(1910-1977、アメリカ生まれのイギリスの神経生理学者、ロボット工学者)により始められた。1949年、W.グレイ・ウォルターは3輪の移動型ロボット車両を作り始め、環境を探索する思索的な性質から「マキナ・スペキュラトリックス」と名付け、その見た目から愛称を「タートル(亀)」とした。この車両は、光センサー、タッチセンサー、推進モーター、操舵モーター、2本の真空管式アナログコンピューターで構成されている。このようなシンプルな設計でありながら、グレイのロボットは複雑な挙動を示すことが実証された。グレイのロボットは、それまでのものとは異なり予め決められた行動をとらないという点でユニークだった。このロボットには反射神経(回路)があり、それがおかれた環境と組み合わさることで、同じ行動を2度と正確に繰り返さないようにしたのだ。この生物のような振る舞いは、現在私たちが人工生命と呼んでいるものの初期形態である。また、2つの機械がどのように相互作用するかを、長時間露光の写真として記録した。これが、この研究が協調的/社会的なロボットと呼ばれる所以である。(図2-3-1-4, 1,2,3)

Fig 2-3-1-4, 1 : Machina Speculatrix - Elsie
The first generation of these robots were named Elmer and Elsie ( ELectro MEchanical Robots, Light Sensitive. ) The following is a photo of Elsie without her shell. In 1951, his technician, Mr. W.J. 'Bunny' Warren, designed and built six new turtles for Grey Walter; they were of a high professional standard. Three of these turtles were exhibited at the Festival of Britain in 1951; others were demonstrated in public regularly throughout the fifties.
(figure refer from )
図2-3-1-4, 1 : マキナ・スペキュラトリックス - エルシー
協調型/社会性ロボットの初期の世代では、エルマーとエルシー(ELectro MEchanical Robots, Light Sensitiveの頭文字を取っている)と名づけられたロボットたちが有名であり、愛称としてウオルターのカメと呼ばれている。上記の写真は、外殻を外した状態である。1951年、科学者グレイ・ウォルターは、技術者であるW.J. バニー ワーレンに依頼して、6体の新しいカメ型ロボットを設計・製作した。この二人は非常にプロフェッショナルで、製作物も高い水準に達していた。これらのカメ型ロボットのうち3体は1951年のブリテン・フェスティバルに展示され、他の個体は1950年代を通して定期的に公開されていた。
Fig 2-3-1-4, 2 : Machina Speculatrix - Elsie
This is the original circuit diagram for the 1951 turtles. It is slightly different from the circuit diagram for Elmer and Elsie, but works in the same way. (Copyrighted Burden Neurological Institute, http://www.ias.
図. 2-3-1-4, 2 : マキナ スペキュラトリックス_エルシー
2-3-1-4, 3 : The Passway When Interacting Elmer and Elsie
"This photograph is the first of 9 taken at a single session in Grey Walter's house in 1950. Candles were fixed to the turtles' shells, and long exposures were used. The light streaks show the paths of the turtles. These are the best scientific records we have of the way the turtles actually behaved. This photograph shows Elsie approaching a light, and then circling around it at a distance."
"This shows Elmer and Elsie interacting. At first they move towards each other, and engage in the fascinating dance described in "The Living Brain". However when the light in the hutch is switched on, they ignore each other and both head for the hutch. Elsie always worked rather better than Elmer so she gets there first. Note Elmer's shell was fabricated from many separate pieces of material."(Copyrighted Burden Neurological Institute,
2-3-1-4, 3 : エルマーとエルシーが相互作用するときの経路
引用『この写真は1950年にグレイ ウォルター家で行われた実験のうちの一回で、9回撮影された最初の1枚である。タートルの外殻にロウソクが固定され、長時間露光が使われた。光の筋がタートルの軌道を表している。これらは、タートルの実際の行動の方向がわかる一番の科学的記録である。この写真はエルシーは光に近づき、そして少し距離を取ってその周りを回っているのを表している。』

2-3-1-5. Replicative/evolutionary Robot

The development of robotics is not only about control methodologies. Robust performance when faced with uncertainty is one of the biggest challenges as most robotic systems are manually designed and based on physics or mathematics. One of the starting points in the face of uncertainty is a learning system to improve performance and accuracy in the midst of uncertainty. But even learning systems are only effective in connection to an initial starting point; they don’t have adaptability in the face of unexpected changes in circumstances. Recently (2010s), a new research field has arisen using names such as replicative-robotics or evolutionary robotics.

2-3-1-5. 自己複製/進化的ロボット


2-3-1-5, 1 : Creatures evelved (evolved)? for walking
The Proposed creatures in here are asked to somehow move on the floor. The space is simulated as are many of the physical laws. While similar to the real world it is still virtual (figure referring from K .Sims (1994), Evolving Virtual Creatures,)
2-3-1-5, 1 : 2-3-1-5, 1 : 歩くために進化した生物

1) Evolving Virtual Creatures by K Sim in 1994.

In 1994, the digital creatures which were proposed by Karl Sim in his thesis ‘Evolving Virtual creatures ’ (K. Sim,1994) represented some of the earliest work on artificial evolutional computing. The robotic object, even in its virtual form, is revolutionised within the ‘hyperspace’ of his world, which consists of a 3 dimensional virtual space, based on physical laws such as gravity, friction, and air viscosity. The system is governed by a combination of GA (genetic algorithm) and neural networks. He also invented a methodology for describing hierarchical connections between plural objects. He started this work as an animation using automated control of object behaviour, rather than with an interest in robotics. There is a trade off in object control in animation: when you use ‘Kinematic control’ it is difficult to show chaotic or random disorder, while if you use ‘Dynamic Simulation’ it becomes difficult to get the simulated behaviour to match the desirable behaviour.

1)『エボルビング・バーチャル ・クリチャーズ』1994年、カール・シム



By giving the creature a system where they evolve themselves, this system can govern both their own morphology and provide control. He used nodes and connections for his genome. There were numerous ‘fitness’ criteria, but in this experiment the distance from initial point to target point was used. The creatures invented unique shapes and behaviour by themselves, this sometimes went beyond the designer’s imagination.


In the last chapter, he described 4 future plans. First by making fitness criteria more complex not only by introducing multiple criteria but by incorporating the idea of efficiency. Second, allow the rendering (skins and material) and morphological features to also become evolutionary and engage in material evolution. Thirdly, competition between plural individuals like in the biological world, not only bringing improvement but adding socializing to the mix. Finally applying it to a real robot. Those points are indeed interesting suggestions. In referring to his thesis, however, it is worth noting the way he interfered with the creatures’ evolution. He did not clearly explain his methodology or the benefits apart from the use of a human ’aesthetic’ decision to pick out different results in the end. Also he mentioned the intelligence of the creatures in the very end of thesis but did actual develop an argument for this.


2-3-1-5, 2 : On one the individual form the ‘Golem Project’
One of the individual and 3d printed body and assembled model. Advancement of rapid prototyping anables (enables?) this project. (

2) Golem Project in 2000

Around 2000’s, two researchers in Brandeis University in US started a self-replicative robot project, called the ‘Golem project’. Later this series of work was compiled as ‘Automatic design and manufacture of robotic life forms’ (2000, H. Lipson and J. Pollack). In these projects, they demonstrate an autonomous replicative robot and its evolution (note: it is not only evolutional computation) with minimum human intervention. Using MEMS (micro-electro mechanic systems) and rapid prototyping, the winning individual in the virtual world was automatically converted to a physical object.

Even before this thesis, the idea of evolutional computing including the idea of self- replacement had been developed.( see previous chapter) But their projects’ uniqueness lay in the fact that they made progress in the area of autonomous design and manufacturing. Traditionally life and body design and generational individual replacement was thought to require a complex set of chemical factories. They emphasized that artificial life or intelligence cannot stay in the virtual world but needs to be revealed in the physical world through feedback or sensing.


2000年代の頃にUSのブランダイス大学で、ふたりの研究者が「ゴーレム プロジェクト」とよばれる、自己複製可能なロボットのプロジェクトを始めた。後にこの一連の研究は、「Automatic design and manufacture of robotic life forms(ロボット生命体の自動設計と自動製造)」(2000年、H.リプソンとJ.ポラック)として、編纂されることになる。これらのプロジェクトで、最小限の人間の介入はあるものの、基本的には自身で自主的に複製可能で、自律的進化が可能なロボット(注釈:それは単に進化的な計算ではない)を実証した。MEMS(micro-electro mechanic systems、メムス=微小電気機械システム)とラピッドプロトタイプを使用し、仮想空間中で一番得点の良い個体が、半自動的に物理的な物体へと変換された。


2-3-1-5, 3 : Diagram from “Resilient Machines Through Continuous self modeling”
The robot has an internal model which explore the optimised behaviour. After many generations of execution sometimes it is output to a physical robotic-body and test to see whether it works or not .
(Fig quote from Bongard.J, 2006, Resilient Machines Through Continuous self modeling)
2-3-1-5, 3 :ダイアグラム『連続的自己モデリングによるレジリエントな機械』より引用
(ボンガード、他 2006, Resilient Machines Through Continuous self modelingより引用)

3) Resilient machine:

Cornell University’s research group consists of Bongard.J and Zykov.V and Lipson.H. It uses the term ‘resilient machine’ in a way that is close to the use of ‘adaptability’ in this thesis. In their paper ‘Resilient Machines Through Continuous self modelling’ (Bongard.J and Zykov.V and Lipson.H, 2006), a robot which has self-modelling features can adapt to unexpected situations, especially damage, such as missing a leg in their arthropod type robot. They mentioned the benefits of this methodology that can reduce time, energy costs and risk for autonomously improving systems as against systems without internal self-models.

3)レジリエントな機械(resilient machine)

コーネル大学のボンガード・Jとジコフ・Z、そしてホッド・リプソンからなる研究グループは、本論文における「適応的(性、可能性)」の用語に近い意味で「レジリエント」という専門用語を用いている。彼らの論文 『Resilient Machines Through Continuous self modelling』 (ボンガード、他, 2006) では、自己モデリング機能を持つロボットは予期せぬ状況に遭遇した際にも適応できるという趣旨を主張している。ここではロボットの物理形状が節足動物=クモのようで、例えばその足のうちの一本が欠損するようなダメージを受けても、その状況で続けて運用すことが出来る仕組みを開発した。彼らはこの方法の利点として、自己モデルを持たないシステムに比して、自律的にシステムを改善するための時間、エネルギーコスト、リスクを削減できることを利点に挙げている。

They made two particularly useful points for this thesis; one is the idea of ‘self-modelling’ and the second is ‘continuous’ modelling. ‘Self-modelling’ corresponds with digital modelling on the screen in this PA (Programmable Architecture) proposal. Hence the physical robot corresponds to the building in PA. The digital model is equivalent to the system of Architecture (building and system) described earlier. Interestingly, the approach is similar though research field is different.

このプロジェクトでとりわけ参考になったのは次の2点である。ひとつは「自己モデリング」、もうひとつは「連続モデリング」という考え方である。「自己モデリング」は、このPA(Programmable Architecture)提案におけるパソコン画面内のデジタルモデリングに相当する。デジタルモデルは、先に述べたアーキテクチャーの建築の制御システムに等しい。したがって、物理的なロボットはPAにおける物理的なビルディングに相当する。興味深いことに、研究分野は違えど、アプローチは似ている。

In traditional architecture the ‘model’ is a scaled dummy to show to the client. Whether a hand drawing or CAD drawing it represents a copy of actual building. However, because of the advancement of computer, computer aided design (CAD) tool, it can become more than a drawing. For example, it can be used as a mathematical model for structural analysis, or a digital model for a computer fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, or used for building information modeling (BIM). ‘Continuous modeling’ relates to temporal design in PA. In the field of robots it is natural to design a machine that operates within the flow of time, but within architecture this is quite a unique point. Basically dynamic modelling is not needed for architectural design, because buildings are static. However PA is truly dynamic so the new strategy is necessary to replace the blue-print.

建築のフィールドにおける「モデル」の概念は、スケール変更された実物のダミーである。それは、クライアントに見せるため等の理由で作成される。広義では手書き図面であれ、CAD図面であれ、それは実際の建物のコピーであるの意味を持つことが多い。しかし今日では、コンピュータの進化もあるが、むしろCAD(Computer Aided Design)ツールの進歩により、製図以上の意味を持たせることが出来る。例えば、構造解析のための数学的モデルとして、あるいは流体解析(CFD)シミュレーションのためのデジタルモデルとして、あるいは建築情報モデリング(BIM)に利用することができる。「連続的なモデリング」は勿論時間的に連続し、絶え間なく自己モデルを更新し続けるという意味であるが、これはPAにおける先述のテンポラルデザイン(時間的なデザイン)に関係する。ロボットの分野では、時間の流れの中で動作する機械を設計することは当然だが、建築の分野では一部設備機器等を除いて、かなり特殊である。建築の設計/デザインにおいては、基本的に動的なモデリングは必要ない、一般に建築は静的なオブジェクトだからである。しかし、PAは真の意味で動的なので、ブループリント(固定された図面)に代わる新しい戦略が必要なのである。